Effects of residual or added elements in the hotte

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Effect of residual or added elements in steel and its alloys on the properties of steel

1. Phosphorus (P): makes steel produce cold embrittlement and reduces the impact toughness of steel; But it can improve the cutting performance of steel

2. Silicon (SI): it can increase the strength, elasticity, heat resistance, acid resistance and resistance coefficient of steel. Deoxidizer in smelting can increase the sensitivity of steel to overheating and decarburization

3. Manganese (mm): it can improve the strength, hardness and wear resistance of steel. Deoxidizer and desulfurizer during smelting

4. Chromium (CR): it can increase the mechanical properties and wear resistance of steel, and can increase the quenching degree and deformation ability of steel after quenching. At the same time, it can increase the hardness, elasticity, magnetic resistance and strength of the steel, and increase the corrosion resistance and heat resistance of the steel

it has the advantages of small limitation due to the structural design of parts. 5. Nickel (Ni): it can improve the strength, toughness, heat resistance, corrosion resistance, acid resistance, magnetic conductivity, etc. of steel. Increase the hardenability and hardness of steel

6. Vanadium (V): some special mechanical properties that can be imparted to steel: for example, increasing the price of the national billet market on the 24th, weakening the tensile strength and yield point, and significantly improving the high-temperature strength of steel

7. Titanium (TI): it can prevent and reduce the generation of bubbles in steel, improve the hardness of steel, refine grains, and reduce the aging sensitivity, cold brittleness and corrosion of steel

8. Copper (Cu): generally, like P and s, it is a residual harmful element. The existence of Cu will reduce the measurement of displacement of the experimental machine in the specification. In fact, it is the measurement of large deformation of materials. The mechanical properties of low steel will damage the welding properties of steel, and the steel will produce thermal brittleness during forging and rolling. Adding a certain amount of Cu into the steel can improve the annealing hardness of the steel and reduce the cost. If the content of Cu is 0.15 ~ 0.25%, the atmospheric corrosion resistance of steel can be improved

9. Aluminum (AL): (1) 0.5 ~ 1% Al in low carbon structural steel helps to increase the hardness and strength of steel; (2) The wear resistance of chromium molybdenum steel and chromium steel can be increased by containing Al; (3) The existence of Al in high carbon tool steel can cause quenching brittleness

10. Tungsten (W): it can improve the creep strength of steel and is a strong accelerator of carbides in steel. Every 1% w can improve the tensile strength and yield point of steel by 4 215; 9.8n/cm, with tempering stability and high temperature strength

11. Molybdenum (MO): it can increase the strength of steel without reducing the plasticity and toughness of steel. At the same time, it can make steel have sufficient strength at high temperature, and improve the cold brittleness and wear resistance of steel

12, cobalt (CO): it can improve the high temperature performance of steel, increase its red hardness, and improve the oxidation resistance and corrosion resistance of steel

13, niobium (NB): it can refine the grain of steel and reduce the overheating sensitivity and tempering brittleness of steel; Improve the weldability of steel, and improve the strength and corrosion resistance of heat-resistant steel

14. Tantalum (TA): improve the quality and mechanical properties of steel, and improve the melting point, high temperature strength, carbide and phase stability of the alloy

15. Zirconium (Zr): oxygen, sulfur and phosphorus removal agents in the smelting process. Zr and HF can improve the strength and hardness of steel, especially the lasting strength of steel and improve the welding performance of steel

16. Rare earth (RE): it is a good deoxidizer and desulfurizer. It can eliminate or weaken the influence of many harmful elements in steel and improve the quality of steel. Adding RE to stainless heat-resistant steel can improve the hot workability of steel, and adding RE to structural steel can improve its plasticity and toughness

17. Boron (b): vitamin in steel. It can multiply the quenching property; Increase the hardness and tension resistance of steel; Improve the weldability of steel, etc. Add 0.1 ~ 4.5% B to low carbon steel. 1. Electronic universal testing machine adopts high-precision force transmission sensor, which has the function of absorbing neutrons

18. Calcium (CA): it can improve the strength and cutting performance of steel. Purifying agent in smelting process

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